Unfolding the Enfolded...

Cosmos, Mind & Soul



The word science comes from the Latin scire, meaning to know or to understand. Primarily, science entails belief in the scientific method as the proper means of acquiring objective knowledge of our world and reality.

But, within science, differing assumptions manifest significantly different foundational beliefs.

Scientific Method

The scientific method is the process of acquiring knowledge by:

  • identifying, observing, describing, and verifying evidence (facts);
  • inferring constructs derived from the facts;
  • hypothesizing explanations of those facts and constructs;
  • experimenting, testing hypotheses; and
  • formulating, selecting or rejecting, and modifying theories that explain the facts, constructs and experimental results, our world and our reality.

Ideas to Explore

Reductionist Science

Reductionist science assumes that xplanations at one level are to be found at more elemental levels of composition, organization and function. It is a modular approach. Everything above is explain by the constituent parts and processes, below. For example, a reductionist biologist believes all explanations are ultimately are found at the chemical and electrical levels. Reductionist science does not take into account how different parts work together as wholes.

Emergent Science

Emergent science assumes that interconnections among relatively simple elements self-organize to create high-level phenomena. For example an emergent psychologist believes that mind and mental life emerge from biological entities and processes. A chemist believes that unique properties of water emerge from the combination of hydrogen and oxygen, which do not have those properties.

Holistic Science

Holistic science assumes that there is a possible qualitative difference between an entire system and its parts.

For example, in the field of quantum physics, David Bohm pointed out that there is no scientific evidence to support the dominant view that the universe consists of a huge, finite number of minute particles, and offered in its stead a view of undivided wholeness. [Wikipedia]

It also assumes that a multi-disciplinary approach in science will succeed where a singular one fails.

Though holistic science--holism--is considered relatively new, the central idea was clearly expressed by Aristotle in his  Metaphysics: "The whole is more than the sum of its parts".

Chance & Effect Size

The role of chance and effect size in hypothesis testing

Meta Analysis

Analyzing effects across studies to increase accuracy of findings and conclusions