Unfolding the Enfolded...

Cosmos, Mind & Soul

Meta Analysis


Meta-analysis is a statistical methodology that combines the findings of multiple, related experimental studies in an attempt to increase the accuracy of analyzes affected by small sample sizes. Two common types of meta-analysis, are proof-oriented and process-oriented--whether something exists and how something works.

Meta-analysis has become an essential tool in the so-called soft sciences, including ecology, psychology, sociology and medicine. Thousands of meta-analyses have been published, there are scientific journals devoted to met-analyses, and it has become the basis for the new emphasis on evidence-based medicine. Entangled Minds, p. 105]

An Example

Findings in parapsychology suggest an effect of distant intentionality. Two laboratory set-ups explored this topic by measuring the effect of a distant intention on psychophysiological variables. The 'Direct Mental Interaction in Living Systems' experiment investigates the effect of various intentions on the electrodermal activity of a remote subject. The 'Remote Staring' experiment examines whether gazing by an observer covaries with the electrodermal activity of the person being observed. Two meta-analyses were conducted. A small significant effect size (d =.11, p = .001) was found in 36 studies on 'direct mental interaction', while a best-evidence-synthesis of 7 studies yielded d = .05 (p = .50). In 15 remote staring studies a mean effect size of d = 0.13 (p = .01) was obtained. It is concluded that there are hints of an effect, but also a shortage of independent replications and theoretical concepts. [Abstract]

Worth Noting

Problems with Meta-analysis

Critics point out problems with ESP meta- analysis ‚